Rules are applied during the load process, and other processes controlled by the laoder application, to test whether the data conforms to certain expectations. Each rule has associated with it a single 'Penalty Score' value. The Penalty Scores range from 0 to 9 inclusive. The higher the score, the more serious the problem. Depending upon the Penalty Scores accrued during an attempted load, one or more of the deposition load files may be assigned the status of 'invalid'. If one or more files in the load are 'invalid' then the entire load is aborted. Rules may either be applied to each individual record in a file (eg: 'Field X must contain an integer'), or, to the file as a whole (eg: 'The filename must have a particular spelling or case', or 'field names must all match a list of permitted field names').